Types of Brick

Types of Bricks and it’s Classifications

What is Brick?

Brick is a baked piece of clay with a uniform shape and sizes. The brick is attained by the moulding of clay in rectangular blocks. The rectangular-shaped boxes like bricks, sets by drying and burning in kilns or the sunshade. There are different types of bricks, which are used in the construction field for a different purpose. The main constituent of the brick is Clay. Types of bricks are also identified as per the particular areas or regions, with its own properties and classifications.
So in this post, we are discussing the building material Brick. Its sizes, qualities, properties, classifications, manufacturing process, its constituents, types of Bonds, different shapes of Bricks, etc.

Sizes of Bricks

The actual size of the brick is 19 x 9 x 9 cm or 190 x 90 x 90 mm. The nominal size of the brick is 20 x 10 x 10 cm or 200 x 100 x 100 mm. The nominal size includes the joining of mortar between bricks. The topmost surface of the brick called Frog (display make of brick). The average weight of the brick will be 3.0 to 3.5 kg.

Standardization of Brick

As per the BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) –

  • The minimum crushing strength of the brick is 3.5 N/mm²
  • For A-grade Brick : Crushing Strength between 7 to 14 N/ mm²
  • For B- Grade Brick : Crushing Strength is above 14 N/ mm²
Standard-Brick
Standard-Brick

Qualities of a Good Brick

  • Bricks should be in uniform shape and sizes.
  • It should be sufficiently hard and free from cracks.
  • Bricks should be copper color in appearance.
  • Bricks produce ringing sound when struck together.
  • If a brick is dropped from a height of 1 meter, it should not break into pieces.
  • There should be no salt deposits seen on the bricks, on soaking in water for 24 hours.

Constituents of a Good Brick

  • Alumina – 20% to 30 %
  • Silica – 50% to 60%
  • Lime – more than 5%
  • Oxides of Iron – 5% to 6%
  • Magnesia – Small amount

Manufacture of Bricks:

The process of manufacturing the bricks, the four distinct operations is involved and they are:

1. Preparation of Clay

The preparation of clay for Brick is prepared in the following methods-

  • Unsoiling
  • Digging
  • Cleaning
  • Weathering
  • Blending
  • Tempering

2. Moulding of Clay

There are two ways to give shapes or moulding of clay to prepare a Brick:

  • Hand Moulding
  • Machine Moulding

3. Drying

There are different methods for the drying of bricks and they are as follows:

  • Artificial Drying
  • Circulation of Air
  • Drying Yard
  • Period for Drying
  • Screens

4. Burning

Burning is the most important process in the manufacturing of Bricks. The burning of Brick is done either by Clamps and in Kilns.

types of brick
Clamp

Read : Building Materials

Types of Kilns:

1. Intermittent Kilns
  • Intermitted up-draughts kilns
  • Intermitted down-draughts kilns
Intermittent-Kilns
2. Continuous Kilns:
  • Bull’s Trench Kiln
  • Hoffman’s Kiln
  • Tunnel Kiln
Hoffmans-Kiln

Types of Bricks :

Bricks can be broadly divided into two categories:

Unburnt or Sun dried Bricks-

Unburnt or Sun dried Bricks are manufacture under the sunshade after the process of moulding. These bricks can be used in temporary constructions. The areas which are exposed to heavy rains, such bricks should not be used in construction.

Burnt Brick-

Brunt bricks are manufacture in the kilns or in clamps. These bricks can be used for the permanent structures or the construction works. These bricks provide a uniform shape and size and also a durable nature or strength for construction.

Classification of Burnt Bricks:

1. First Class Brick
  • Manufactured – In Kilns and Table Mounted Mouldings
  • Appearance- Uniform shape and size
  • Properties- Surface & edges of the bricks are sharp, straight and smooth.
  • Uses- For superior work of permanent structures.
2. Second Class Brick
  • Manufactured – In Kilns and Ground moulded
  • Appearance- Irregular shape and size, also have hair cracks
  • Properties- Surface & edges of the bricks are rough. Also, these bricks should be plaster for providing smooth surface.
  • Uses- For brickwork with a coat of plaster for smooth texture.
3. Third Class Brick
  • Manufactured – In Clamps and Ground moulded
  • Appearance- Irregular shape and size.
  • Properties- Surface & edges of the bricks are rough and distorted. Also, these bricks provide dull sound when they struck together.
  • Uses- For temporary structures and in places where rainfall is not too heavy.
4. Fourth Class Brick
  • Manufactured – In both Kilns & Clamps and Table & Ground moulded
  • Appearance- Irregular shape & size, dark in color
  • Properties- Surface & edges of the bricks are rough but they are more stronger than the first class bricks.
  • Uses- In road construction, foundations, as an aggregate for concrete floors, buildings, etc.

Types of Brick Bonds:

Brick Bonds is a term used for the arrangements of bricks in the construction of building walls, columns, etc. The patterns of  bonding between the bricks called Brick Bonds. There are three different types of bonds are used in construction fields and they are:

  1. Flemish Bond
  2. English Bond
  3. Stretcher  Bond

Different Shapes of Bricks:

  1. Bull-nose Brick
  2. Cow-nose Brick
  3. Hollow Brick
  4. Channel Brick
  5. Curved Sector Brick
  6. Paving Brick
  7. Purpose Made Brick
  8. Perforated Brick
  9. Coping Brick

Download Types of Brick PDF

Frequently Asked Questions

Standard size of brick in mm

The actual size of the brick is 190 x 90 x 90 mm. The nominal size of the brick is 200 x 100 x 100 mm. The nominal size includes the joining of mortar between bricks.

Qualities of a Good Brick

1.Bricks should be in uniform shape and sizes.
2.It should be sufficiently hard and free from cracks.
3.Bricks should be copper color in appearance.
4.Bricks produce ringing sound when struck together.
5.If a brick is dropped from a height of 1 meter, it should not break into pieces.
6.There should be no salt deposits seen on the bricks, on soaking in water for 24 hours.

Classification of Burnt Bricks:

1. First Class Brick
2. Second Class Brick
3. Third Class Brick
4. Fourth Class Brick

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